Authors：Zhang H, Chen Y, Ni R, Cao Y, Fang W, Hu W, Pan G.
Source：Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2023 Aug 9;262:115349.
Background: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a risk factor for cognitive function, whereas healthy lifestyles are associated with better cognition. We aimed to examine their joint effects on cognition among the Chinese elderly.
Methods: The data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was used. Participants' cognitive performance was assessed by the Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination. Residential proximity to major roadways was obtained through self-report and categorized into five categories: > 300 m, 201-300 m, 101-200 m, 50-100 m, and < 50 m, serving as a surrogate for TRAP. Six lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercise, body mass index, sleep duration, and dietary diversity) were taken into account to calculate healthy lifestyle scores. The scores ranged from zero to six and were then divided into three groups: healthy (5-6), intermediate (2-4), and unhealthy (0-1). Logistic regression models were applied to investigate the joint effects of TRAP and healthy lifestyle scores on cognition.
Results: Compared to participants living < 50 m from major roadways and adopting an unhealthy lifestyle, those living > 300 m from major roadways and adopting a healthy lifestyle had a significantly decreased risk of cognitive impairment. Stratified analysis indicated that the associations between TRAP and cognitive impairment were more pronounced among participants adopting an unhealthy lifestyle compared to the participants adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Conclusions: TRAP may impair cognitive function, and its detrimental impacts may be lessened by healthy lifestyles.
Keywords: Cognitive impairment; Healthy lifestyles; Traffic-related air pollution.
方法：采用中国健康寿命纵向调查数据。参与者的认知表现通过中文版的小型精神状态测试进行评估。通过自我报告获得与主要道路的住宅邻近度，并将其分为> 300 m、201-300 m、101-200 m、50-100 m和< 50 m 5类，作为TRAP的替代。六种生活方式行为(吸烟、饮酒、运动、体重指数、睡眠时间和饮食多样性)被考虑在内，以计算健康生活方式得分。得分范围从0到6，然后分为三组:健康(5-6)，中等(2-4)和不健康(0-1)。采用Logistic回归模型探讨TRAP和健康生活方式评分对认知的联合影响。
结果：与居住距离主要道路< 50 m且生活方式不健康的受试者相比，居住距离主要道路> 300 m且生活方式健康的受试者认知功能障碍风险显著降低。分层分析表明，与采用健康生活方式的参与者相比，采用不健康生活方式的参与者的TRAP与认知障碍之间的关联更为明显。